by the assertion that: To be means simply to express, to embody the complete internal meaning of a certain absolute system of ideas, – a system, moreover, which is genuinely implied in the true internal meaning of purpose of every finite idea, however fragmentary.” (Royce 1900, 36). Carus 1908; M.N.]. (Boodin 1911b: vii). ch. 13 In James’s words, the same message reads thus: “The ‘absolutely’ true, meaning what no farther experience will ever alter, is that ideal vanishing-point towards which we imagine that all our temporary truths will some day converge. Sellars Roy Wood, (1924), “Critical Realism and Its Critics,” The Philosophical Review, 33, 379-97. , it is interesting to note that Boodin does not make any mention of it in “Functional Realism.” To be sure, at two places he casually refers to James (1934: 161) and to Dewey (1934: 171). Critical realism refers to a philosophical position on the world and science. Misak 2013). (Boodin 1911b: 223-4), 33Understood that way, the object itself becomes “a truth process” (ibid. But already two years earlier they had published “The Program and First Platform of Six Realists.” In this manifesto, they came along with a couple of – more or less general – realist theses. We must interpolate, somehow, realities which are not immediate experience.” (1916: 20). We do for practical reasons at least. I hope that for the rest of his life he will remain as buoyant and spirited as he has ever been, and will meet with unlimited recognition. 26It is clearly Royce’s version of idealism to which Boodin is alluding in the last two sentences of that passage. Idealism, for example, is based on the early writings of Plato. At any rate, Boodin starts his article with the following characterization: As Boodin further makes it clear, the pragmatist holds that the truth of a hypothesis stands in close connection to human habit and conduct. Online: [journals.openedition.org/ejpap/945]. is, according to Boodin, only a halfway house. There are many different views in sociology about what societies are and the best ways of obtaining knowledge of them. Here at least the artist has the sense of doing something, for in the other temples there is nothing to do but contemplate that which is, whether beauty or desert. ch. 6 For the latter, see the insightful reconstruction in Slater 2011. On the whole, Boodin’s philosophical work fell into oblivion with the death of its author. Boodin therefore declares: “We must hold to the pragmatic postulate that energy is what it does.”, . He writes: It was certainly this very passage that provoked the following critical comment by the journal’s editors: See, in this connection, his extended critique of James’s variant of pragmatism in Carus 1908. James inquired into Boodin’s background and plans, and nicknamed him “the orator.” He then went on to revise his paper in response to Boodin’s critique. His major contributions to theoretical philosophy are the following: the 1911 book, , Boodin explicitly argues for what he calls “pragmatic realism” (see Boodin 1911a, esp. See, in this connection, his extended critique of James’s variant of pragmatism in Carus 1908. They make, at the outset, a bifurcation of thing and environment as though they were only externally related. See Wiktionary Terms of Use for details. He categorically distinguishes between “prediction and control of certain practical situations” (1911b: 60), on the one hand, and “nature in the abstract” (ibid. Suzuki 1962). Our next task will be to determine what he made out of this kind of situation. On the other hand, he explicitly demarcates his position from “the movement sometimes called ‘the new realism’” (ibid.). It is not the province of metaphysics to dictate to reality what it must be, but to discover its fundamental meaning. Boodin knew no English when he arrived in Colchester, Illinois, in 1887. “In it,” Sellars writes, “both pragmatism of a chastened sort and neo-realism of a less doctrinaire type may ultimately find the satisfaction of their insights.”, . 45To begin with, when Boodin published his “Functional Realism” the philosophical context had significantly changed as compared to the time when Truth and Reality and A Realistic Universe came out. As for Boodin’s philosophical work, it should be mentioned first that he is characterized by Shook as one of the twelve “major figures” (Shook 1998: xiii) of pragmatism. , i.e., six years before Sellars made his claim. Accordingly, science, from the pragmatist point of view, is “a systematic sorting of experience in the realization of our interests” (ibid. It is these questions that I finally want to briefly address. , published in 1911, that Boodin directly replied to that comment. Yet it is important to emphasize that this does not imply a “relapse” to materialism. See Randall 1966. . (Boodin 1934: 147-8). Boodin 1911b: 58) as well as from his focusing on the pragmatic element in knowledge. As nouns the difference between pragmatism and realism. 17James’s conception of philosophy stands, according to Boodin, in that very tradition. by the assertion that: To be means simply to express, to embody the complete internal meaning of a certain absolute system of ideas, – a system, moreover, which is genuinely implied in the true internal meaning of purpose of every finite idea, however fragmentary.” (Royce 1900, 36). And he had no money. European PragmatismBetween Pragmatism and Realism. Nelson Charles H., (1984), “John Elof Boodin. This was the year when Boodin’s “Functional Realism” appeared in The Philosophical Review. critical realism. Matter is applicable only within a limited field. For one thing, he stressed that Truth and Reality and the present volume “furnish a survey of the field of general philosophy from the point of view of pragmatic realism” (Boodin 1916: vii). Lovejoy Arthur O., (1920), “Pragmatism Versus the Pragmatist,” in Durant Drake, Arthur O. Lovejoy, James B. Pratt, Arthur K. Rogers, George Santayana, Roy Wood Sellars, & Charles A. Editorial Comment to Boodin, (1908), The Monist, 18, 306. But for all that I can not agree with or accept the philosophy of the great Harvard Professor, and I go so far as to look upon its wide acceptance as a symptom of the immaturity and naivite that obtains sometimes even in the professional circles of our universities. Even during his lifetime, Boodin had the impression that his philosophical contributions were not sufficiently appreciated. As a matter of fact, it was in this context that he personally encountered James for the first time. . As concerns his primary sources of inspiration, he mentions James, Royce and “the vitalizing influence in our country of its great teacher, John Dewey, and the Chicago School” (1916: ix). Whether we can realize it or not only the historical outcome of the pragmatic test can prove.” (, In this case, too, an Editorial Comment was attached. At one of the Philosophy Club’s meetings, James gave a talk titled “Is Life Worth Living?”. James’s account of experience as “self-sufficient”. Positivism -vs- Pragmatism Is knowledge composed of a correct representation or what works in practice? Reflecting on his own philosophical development, especially on his time at Harvard. And he had no money. “Why,” he asks, “should a man’s soul be crowded into one system of philosophy?” (1908: 302). For example, physical properties such as weight, for Boodin, do not exist in the abstract. The Social Mind: Foundations of Social Philosophy. In its opening paragraph the following is clarified: “Prof. Most people who are in government are pragmatists and therefore politicians. (Boodin 1916: 71). James’s account of experience as “self-sufficient” (ibid.) His personality as well as his philosophy had a marked and far-reaching influence upon a whole generation of American thinkers. But for all that I can not agree with or accept the philosophy of the great Harvard Professor, and I go so far as to look upon its wide acceptance as a symptom of the immaturity and naivite that obtains sometimes even in the professional circles of our universities. Boodin John Elof, (1910), “Pragmatic Realism,” The Monist, 20, 602-14. Suzuki Daisetz T., (1962), The Essentials of Zen Buddhism, New York, Greenwood Press. 15 of The Monist, published in 1909. It is apparent that Boodin seeks some sort of “idealized” as well as “humanized” conception of reality and truth. DeForge, R., Shaw, J.: Back-and fore-grounding ontology: exploring the linkages between critical realism, pragmatism, and methodologies in health & rehabilitation sciences. in 1937. The critical realists – philosophers such as Durant Drake, George Santayana, Roy Wood Sellars and the already mentioned Arthur O. Lovejoy – shared the neo-realists’ rejection of idealism. I hope that for the rest of his life he will remain as buoyant and spirited as he has ever been, and will meet with unlimited recognition. Yet, the philosophical scenario in the 1910s and 1920s was quite complex. Boodin himself belonged to that very generation, so that it appears more adequate to speak of the “pragmatism of a European-born philosopher” than of Boodin’s “European pragmatism.”, Boodin published eight books and more than sixty articles for journals, both in the field of theoretical philosophy (which concerns us here) and in the field of practical philosophy. To begin with, when Boodin published his “Functional Realism” the philosophical context had significantly changed as compared to the time when, came out. And the only key to external reality is what we must take it as, in the realization of our purposes. On Boodin’s reading, energetics provides us with the essential tools for bridging the gap between “the” subjective and “the” objective. Realism is based on the thinking of Aristotle. 41Let us now make a time jump to 1934. Writes Boodin: Unlike in his early paper “Philosophic Tolerance” Boodin now sharply distinguishes between metaphysics and art. In Boodin’s words: The conception of energy has gradually supplanted the conception of matter as a universal ideal of description. Holt, for example, claimed that “[t]he entities […] under study in logic, mathematics, and the physical sciences are not mental in any usual or proper meaning of the word ‘mental’” (Holt in Holt, 1910: 394). (Ibid. Rather, “[t]he thing must suggest an own center of energy” (ibid.). More generally, “[p]roperties have no meaning for science, except as energy determinations, characteristics within energy systems” (, is “a fundamental characteristic of energy systems” (, of relativity (without mentioning Einstein himself) Boodin points out that “[w]e know of no absolute position in space or absolute system of relations”, and that “[o]ur standards of measurement, whether of energy, time, or space, are all alike pragmatic”, From all this, however, it does not follow that things are “created or ‘faked’” (1916: 70). After a short time working in a “low vein” mine owned by the Quincy Coal Company, Boodin attended Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois, in 1890-91 where he studied Latin, Greek, Swedish, and Geometry. (Boodin 1909: 627). 1 For a comprehensive account of Boodin’s life and work, see Nelson 1984 (on which I primarily draw here). : 633). It “deals with the common and overlapping problems, left over by the special sciences” and it “must ever be present as a regulative ideal in all our search for truth” (ibid.). He believed in eternal truth and rejected its relativization by the pragmatists. 11In a similar vein, American pragmatism had evolved as an anti-idealistic movement. , Boodin delivered a couple of programmatic clarifications. Just as in the case of Ostwald (cf. Because CR principles are usually used to underpin the developmen… Rather, idealism was a multifaceted movement. 48However, a more charitable reading would account for the fact that the systematical and historical relation of pragmatism and realism, as it were, provoked the sort of eclectic fusion to be found in Boodin’s later work. In contrast to both idealism and materialism this kind of metaphysics is driven by criticism instead of dogmatism in terms of method. Michael Heidelberger & Friedrich Stadler (eds), History of Philosophy of Science: New Trends and Perspectives, Charles S., (1905), “What Pragmatism Is,”, Present Philosophical Tendencies: A Critical Survey of Naturalism, Idealism, Pragmatism, and Realism, Together With a Synopsis of the Philosophy of William James, John H., (1966), “Josiah Royce and American Idealism,”, Skepticism and Animal Faith: Introduction to a System of Philosophy, Roy Wood, (1908), “Critical Realism and the Time Problem,”, Critical Realism: A Study of the Nature and Conditions of Knowledge. Idealism had almost disappeared from the scene, and the realist camp had developed into a more diversified form. The change meant a change of language, a change of history and tradition. However, James’s influence upon them was obviously the trend-setting factor. Consequently, both idealism and materialism are, in his view, variants of “dogmatism” (. MRes Philosophy of Knowledge: ... Pragmatism Critical Realism Realism Radical Constructivism Social Constructivism Reductionism Rationalism Empiricism Positivism is not about Truth, but Method! Boodin 1916: 33). This method has been rechristened within recent years by C. S. Peirce and William James and called pragmatism. Kuklick Bruce, (2017), “Who Owns Pragmatism?,” Modern Intellectual History, 14, 565-83. His major contributions to theoretical philosophy are the following: the 1911 book Truth and Reality; the 1916 book A Realistic Universe; and an article published in 1934 (in The Philosophical Review) titled “Functional Realism.” In Truth and Reality, Boodin explicitly argues for what he calls “pragmatic realism” (see Boodin 1911a, esp. Both approaches promise much. These latter conditions should be conceived of as – energetically definable – “truth-makers,” which in James’s theory wouldn’t find any place because of their being postulated as existing previous to verification. & Edward G. Spaulding (eds), (1912), The New Realism: Cooperative Studies in Philosophy, New York, Macmillan. At any rate, Boodin’s contributions to the complex discussion of realism, pragmatism, and their mutual relationship are worth reconsidering. And indeed, it were (among others) some of Royce’s best students who stood at the forefront of a new movement in early twentieth-century American philosophy. The object, in other words, is dependent upon the cognitive moment not for its existence, but for its significance. Durant Drake, Arthur O. Lovejoy, James B. Pratt, Arthur K. Rogers, George Santayana, Roy Wood Sellars, & Charles A. Sixty-Second Philosopher (Seek to 49:30): Ian Shoales speeds through the origins of pragmatism and its misapprehension throughout American history. In order to adequately understand this shift in philosophical perspective, it is important to take into account both Boodin’s intellectual socialization in the United States and the surrounding philosophical context. Boodin attended the talk. It will be shown that Boodin’s work underwent a development from a more or less direct form of pragmatism to a certain variant of realism, which Boodin himself called “functional” realism. Boodin 1916: 33). […] It is nonsense to speak of an hypothesis, which is our meaning or attitude, as true previous to verification; but previous to verification there exist certain conditions, which make some hypotheses come true.” (Boodin 1911b: 228). 39From all this, however, it does not follow that things are “created or ‘faked’” (1916: 70). The molecule, which, thanks to Perrin, has now been definitely identified and measured, seems like a distinct stopping place, if we would preserve the character of the compound. 8 Furthermore, they demarcated their understanding of the term “critical” from the Kantian one by declaring that “the word ‘critical’ has no reference to the Kantian philosophy, which should not be allowed to monopolize that excellent adjective.” (Drake et al. In a small way, this book tries to serve both purposes. Instead, he published – in the very same year – an article titled “What Pragmatism Is and Is Not” for, The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Method, . In his opinion, “the doctrine commonly put forward as ‘pragmatism’ may be said to be a changeling, substituted almost in the cradle” (Lovejoy 1920: 80). These results cannot be ruled out by any a priori theory as regards infinite divisibility. As Sellars makes it clear in his, (1922), the critical realist “is very sympathetic with the position of the pragmatist, albeit he thinks that many pragmatists are too utilitarian and do not value enough, or sufficiently admit, a theoretical interest in knowledge” (Sellars 1922: 55-6). According to Boodin, on the other hand, “[t]ruth is our version of reality. 1910: 394). ch. Misak 2013, ch. Sellars Roy Wood, (1969), Reflections on American Philosophy from Within, Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press. Besides idealism, neo-realism, and pragmatism there existed a further influential movement, namely so-called critical realism. This becomes particularly clear from Lovejoy’s contribution to the 1920 essay volume. The main difference between critical theory and constructivism is that critical theory is a theory focusing on critiquing and changing society as a whole while constructivism is a theory that states humans construct knowledge through their intelligence, experiences and interactions with the world.. Critical theory and constructivism are two key concepts you encounter in sociology. Thus one can read in his book The Social Mind from 1939: I was uprooted from my community. There he studied philosophy and received his master’s degree in 1896. Defining critical realism is not an easy task. According to Pihlström, Boodin was of the opinion “that his work and training on his home farm with intimate contact with nature may have made him an ‘empirical realist’” (Pihlström 2010: 6). 29Apparently, pragmatism stood in need of being defended (or at least of being clarified) against its opponents. is, according to its subtitle, an “Introduction to Metaphysics.” Boodin’s 1934 “Functional Realism” doesn’t contain any mentioning of pragmatism or pragmatic elements. This plan didn’t work out, but Boodin received a funded scholarship at nearby Brown University. A certain form of, Ontologically, atoms, according to Boodin, have the status of energy centers: they must be conceived as “more or less stable dynamic clusters within dynamic systems” (, : 83). He argued: An hypothesis, whether of atoms or morals, God or devil, is true because it works. Critical Realism and Pragmatism in Educational Research. By thinkers such as weight, for an evaluation, Kuklick ( 2001 202-3... 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Adams & William Pepperell Montague, New York Greenwood. James was instrumental in preparing the way, this diagnosis is false that,! In need of being clarified ) against its opponents Bibliography, 1898-1940, Amsterdam, Rodopi Harvard. Wish him all possible success and the only reality paper, Boodin repudiates both these! The distinctive characteristic of energy has gradually supplanted the conception of matter years before made... 14 in this connection, his extended critique of James ’ s own solution to that Comment,. In our Division where we have to deal with a final natural unity and more explicitly draws. T ] he thing must suggest an own center of energy ” ( ibid. ) ). Functional ” realism as a programmatic characterization, this diagnosis: “ James instrumental. Between the core ideas behind each philosophy any rate, Boodin ’ s contributions to the United fundamentally. ( e.g force of natural processes and, as we have to deal with a final natural?! 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