Yet, it is a fantastic mixer for a variety of cocktails, including those that typically use a standard rum. Rum is made from sugarcane, a crop that Christopher Columbus introduced to the Americas in the 1400s. The harvested cane is washed, chopped into short lengths and milled (pressed) to extract the water and sugar juice. Like all distillates, regardless of whether they are distilled in pot or column stills, all rums are clear when they condense after distillation. This is fermented and then distilled to make rum (or the neutral alcohol on which some liqueurs are based). Many rum distillers will also use old bourbon barrels for aging because they cannot be reused in that whiskey's production. Rum is one of the oldest distilled spirits and it has one of the most colorful histories of any alcoholic beverage. This potent rum is 75 to 75 1/2 percent alcohol by volume (150 to 151 proof) and can be as dangerous to drink as Everclear if it is not diluted in some way. Rum drinks range from hot to cold, easy to complicated. The rate of fermentation and the alcohol level produced is partly governed by the levels of non-sugar dissolved solids, being mainly minerals and Potassium Chloride, high concentrations of which inhibit yeast growth. In general, heavily-bodied rums are those with more congeners and they tend to be made in pot (alembic) stills. The distillate from the pot still is directed into the first of two retorts, a copper chamber filled with low wines from the previous distillation diluted with water (to approx 50% alc./vol.). The rums produced in tropical climates will generally be aged for a shorter period of time than those in cooler climates. Cooling jackets can be used to increase reflux and there is also a move to use vacuums in column stills which reduce the boiling points and so the temperature the still runs at. So if you're soaking in a pool with an umbrella drink in your hand, raise a glass to rum. As for age statements, in many cases they are just that, statement and not fact. 5 Best Cachacas for Mixing up a Fantastic Caipirinha. By law, cachaça must be produced in Brazil. In the Caribbean the cane is usually cut once a year, while in South American sub-tropical climates it is possible to crop twice a year. The crushed pulp waste is burned to generate power to crush the cane and sometimes to heat a distillation column. In addition, yeast also initiates chemical reactions in the wash to create compounds such as aldehydes, esters and acids which are collectively known as congeners. That man's name was Facundo Bacardi Masso and the drink was known as "aguardiente,"" the Spanish word for firewater. Light-bodied rum is sometimes referred to as white or silver rum. Simple column stills (like that designed by Aeneas Coffey) consist of two tall columns, one called an 'analyzer column' and the other the 'rectifying column'. A subcategory of dark rum is those called blackstrap. Calvados is a French brandy made from apples (though it can also contain pears). Elsewhere, it is rare to find rums made directly from sugar cane juice. Thus each island and country where rum is produced tends to have its own style, favoured by the native population who have grown-up drinking that style of rum. White rum: Also known as light rum, white rum is the most common type of rum used in a classic Rum and Coke. The skill of the distiller is to use the distillation process to separate and collect the alcohols and flavour compounds (congeners) wanted in the finished rum. Although a closely guarded secret it is known that Bacardi use a mix of tropical woods and coconut shells to filter their charcoal. Whether a cask is a 'first re-fill', meaning the cask was previously used to age another spirit and this is its first time it has been used to age rum. Many rums are then aged in wood casks. It is the most common style of rum and is a very subtle liquor, much like vodka with a sweet tooth. Sure, alcoholism is a rising problem and it had led to many deaths, broken families and illnesses. On rare occasions, a natural infusion of fruits or herbs is used. The Brazilian rum known as cachaça differs from others because it skips the molasses and instead uses pure sugar cane juice in the distillation process. In rum making one of the common additions to pot stills are retorts. This is called reflux and it can also be achieved by the way the head on the pot still is shaped. The volatile 'high wines' or 'heads' will be given off first and set aside. These are the kind of stills used in Scotland to make malt whisky and France to make cognac. This can be commercially cultured yeast or natural ambient yeast found on the leaves of the sugar cane. While rum generally does not have tight regulations on its production, rhum agricole is an exception. Some newer rums are a blend of agricole and traditional, Rum can also be made from cane syrup, made by boiling cane juice to remove some of its water content. This is a popular rum for creating flamed drinks because the high alcohol content makes it easy to burn. As the sugar processing industry becomes more efficient so the amount of rum that can be produced per ton of molasses is failing. But rum isn't exclusive to just one cocktail, as it's the alcohol of choice for everything from mojitos to mai tais to hurricanes. Once a field of cane is ready to be harvested, that particular field is sometimes burnt to remove the leaves (and scorpions and such like). The odour, texture and taste of light rums are more subtle and refined than those of heavy rums, which have a heavy, syrupy flavour to match their dark colour. Conversely, some aged rums are charcoal filtered to remove any colour and are bottled completely clear. The majority of "dark" rums fall into this category as well. The taller the stills, the more plates they contain and so the purer the alcohol (lighter rum) produced. This is the rum you’re going to want to add to your piña coladas. This method of rum production is common on the French islands, particularly Martinique where it is called 'rhum agricole'. Similar to cachaça, rhum agricole is also distilled from pure sugar cane juice. It is important to note that climate plays a significant role in how long any distilled spirit is aged for and rum is no exception. It is common for caramel to be added to aged rums to 'correct' the colour, and lets be honest, often to darken the colour so potentially giving the rum an older appearance. BEST OVERALL. Next follows the desirable part of the run, 'the cut', as the alcohol level of the distillate collected starts to fall, and the 'low wines' or 'tails' arrive and are set aside. As touched upon earlier, particularly when discussing the difference between light and heavy rums, there are basically two types of still used in rum production: pot (alembic) stills and column (Coffey) stills. Whatever the origins of the cask, ageing spirits in the humid/tropical climatic conditions typical of the Caribbean and South America will have a very different affect to that of somewhere like Scotland. ('Fancy molasses' is a term for 'inverted sugar' syrup where sucrose has been converted to glucose and fructose with acid or enzymes.). Due to their plentiful supply, rum is most commonly aged in American oak casks which have previously been used to age American whisky (bourbon). They vary greatly in age, with the older rums costing more than younger bottlings. Rum definition, an alcoholic liquor or spirit distilled from molasses or some other fermented sugar-cane product. It is distilled from fresh-pressed sugar cane juice using a Creole continuous column still. Colour in rum is the result of ageing in oak casks (and also the possible addition of caramel colour). Rum is a liquor distilled from sugar. The Caribbean Rum Marquee for example, presently proves little else than that a rum originated in the Caribbean. The sugar may be either pure cane sugar, a syrup, or molasses. Few spirits can make a beach cocktail like rum can. Rum can be made by distilling the beery type liquid produced from fermented fresh sugar cane juice. Malibu is a coconut flavored liqueur, made with Caribbean rum, and possessing an alcohol content by volume of 21.0 % (42 proof).As of 2017 the Malibu brand is owned by Pernod Ricard, who calls it a "flavored rum", where this designation is allowed by local laws. mixing molasses with the solution skimmed off the sugar cane juice after it is boiled Some distillers use chilled heads on their retorts which condense the vapours as they rise up causing them to fall back into the chamber. Rum and Coke, or the Cuba libre (/ ˈ k juː b ə ˈ l iː b r eɪ / KEW-bə LEE-bray, Spanish: [ˈkuβa ˈliβɾe]; literally "Free Cuba"), is a highball cocktail consisting of cola, rum, and in many recipes lime juice on ice. You could even think of them as the desserts of the rum world. How to use rum in a sentence. Look for bottles like Cruzan Black Strap and Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum. Rum 101. Hamilton Rum's Jamaican Pot Still Black is a moderately priced option with a deep flavor we love. This is filled with high wines from the previous distillation, again diluted with water but to a higher strength. The resulting 'wash' can then be distilled to make rum. Aged rums will obtain their golden color from the barrels that they are aged in. The still is charged with the wash and then heat is applied to bring to the boil. Extensively they are glorified copper kettles - indeed in some countries such as the Netherlands even call them 'kettles' rather than stills. This process of distilling the fermented rum wash will make for a purer and more concentrated spirit. Rum is termed 'light' or 'heavy' depending the level of flavour components or 'congeners' - products of fermentation that are not ethyl alcohol. Rum can also be made from cane syrup, made by boiling cane juice to remove some of its water content. The name is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée, meaning that calvados, Fruit cups, quintessentially English summertime thirst-quenching drinks, were invented by the Victorians and were originally a mixture of fruit, liqueurs, Archie Rose, a Sydney-based distilling company, have just taken a big gamble. If you said yes, chances are you're a fan of rum, which is the reason why piña coladas make you feel intoxicated. The heaviest compounds, the 'high wines' (those with a high boiling point) come off the still last. Besides adding a rich, sweet flavor to cocktails, dark rums are the preferred sipper of the rum family, especially fine rums like Angostura 1824. Additives used to boost a rum's flavour include prune wine, chaptalized fruit juice, boisse, sugar, spice and flavourings. Rum definition is - an alcoholic beverage distilled from a fermented cane product (such as molasses). Like most grass varieties, sugar cane thrives on being cut and simply starts growing again after cutting, this cycle only needs to be interrupted due to diminishing nutriments in the soil. Choosing a quality light or gold rum to stock in your bar is a good place to begin. In the 1850s, a Spanish wine merchant living in Cuba set out to improve upon a cheaply made alcoholic drink that was common in the area. The higher alcohol content makes these a popular choice for lighting drinks on fire. This reduces the ageing period required to gain a similar effect and is viewed by many (including me) as being something of a shortcut, as although it imparts a lot of flavours from the oak, the effects of extended oxidisation and evaporation are not replicated. After six years or so it was common to plant another crop to reinvigorate the soil but modern fertilisers are now often used to stretch a few more years of cane growth. These are made from the darkest molasses produced during the third boil while refining sugar. Creating great tasting cocktails at home is easy once you have some recipes. Photo by Alex Lau. The fact that ageing in oak barrels improves the raw rum was discovered when ships carried rum on the long passage to Europe, it arrived darker in colour and with an improved flavour. In practice distillation is a lot more complex with numerous variables affecting the final distillate produced - mainly the different boiling points of the various different kinds of alcohol and their particular flavour compounds. These are the richest rums that receive their flavor from aging in charred oak casks. Because these rums are in contact with the wood for a longer time, they naturally pick up the flavors and colors of the barrel. Molasses are so rich in nutriment that the yeast needs to be propagated and slowly introduced to progressively higher concentrations of molasses as its cell numbers increase. Medium-bodied rums are often called gold or amber rum. Others portray the average age of the rums in the blend and some are simply meaningless. Try some of these: As with all rum, quality and price vary greatly from one brand to another. The most famous cachaça cocktail is the caipirinha, Brazil's national drink. Many commercially produced flavored rums will use artificial and natural ingredients to add the desired flavor to a white rum base. Sugar cane contains about 75% water, 10-16% sugar and 10-16% fibre. The hot vapour causes the liquid in the 'low wine retort' to boil and so concentrate the strength of the vapour which then moves on the second retort. Traditionally, cane is harvested by cutters wielding machetes, who cut the cane close to the ground as this part of the stem has the highest concentration of sugars, before lopping off the leafy tops. It's always a good idea to read the labels so you know what you're buying, especially when it comes to the potential of additives. Light rums tend to have a short fermentation while heavy pot still rums are usually distilled from a wash formed by a long fermentation. This delicious concoction is the traditional rum punch recipe used in the West Indies, passed down for years. Whatever sugar cane derivative base ingredient is chosen (molasses, cane juice or cane syrup) this is fermented with water and cultured (almost always) or naturally occurring yeast to produce a beer like 'wash' of 5-10% alc./vol.. The variety has grown to rival the number of flavored vodka options available. Heavy-bodied or dark rums are typically used in rum punches. Some distillers increase the surface area of wood in the cask by inserting oak or charred oak chips. Many of these rums make a smooth sipper and can be used in place of light rum in some darker cocktails. It includes both the light-bodied rums, typified by those of Cuba and Puerto Rico, and the heavier and fuller-flavoured rums of Jamaica.. Rums originated in the West Indies and are first mentioned in records from Barbados in about 1650. What's left is the thick black liquid by-product known as molasses. Many rums are blends of light and dark rums of different ages. The liquids placed in the retorts will have a dramatic affect on the finished distillate. White rum can simply be a sugar cane distillate watered down and bottled. Many distillers, such as Novo Fogo, even play with different types of woods that impart unique flavor profiles to the spirit. © Copyright odd firm of sin 2020. Light rums tend to originate from countries originally colonised by the Spanish, such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela. The sweet taste of rum makes it a versatile mixer and it is essential for any well-stocked bar. Often described as the 'cut', it this proportion of the run which will be used to make the finished rum. So if you take a mixture of alcohol and water, boil it, collect the vapours given off in batches throughout the boil, cool and so condense (turn vapour back into liquid) these vapours back to liquid, the liquids collected at the start of boil will be alcoholic and those towards the end will be water. A decent white rum is fine, but I prefer a moderately aged, slightly dry spirit, as this adds some intrigue to the end product. ('Fancy molasses' is a term for 'inverted sugar' syrup where sucrose has been converted to glucose and fructose with acid or enzymes.) Light Rum. This will be the most used bottle because it's versatile and required for the majority of rum … There are some exceptions, including overproof rums which can reach 160 proof. Appleton Estate master blender Joy Spence, the first woman to hold that job title, … This mixture is boiled and then cooled to encourage the sugar crystals to enlarge. The pineapple infusion is sure… Rum produced from a pot still or single distillation column is usually described as heavy. By far the majority of rums are produced from molasses - known as 'rhum traditional', but also sometimes rather unkindly described by producers of rhum agricole as 'rhum industriel' (industrial rum). They've purchased 50 tonnes of the Hunter Valleys smoke-tainted grapes and, Not to be confused with their more bitter and alcoholic siblings, Italian red bitter liqueurs, these similarly coloured aperitivo liqueurs are altogether. No matter the base, the underlying flavor profile of rum is a sweet, toasted sugar. Charcoal filtration may be used before and after ageing. This is due to the rules of bourbon dictating that the whiskey must be aged in new white oak casks so once used they are useless to the bourbon industry, other than as a commodity to be sold to other distillers around the world. Rum distinguishes itself from other spirits by the plant from which it is made. Appleton Estate. All rights reserved. The skimmings were obtained from the boiling of the sugar cane and were mixed with molasses and "dunder" (leftover sediment in the still). This is where the distillation step of making your own rum comes in. Even if this is your first foray into rum, we think it’s OK to … Thus a good sugar factory will produce bad molasses as it will have efficiently extracted most of the sugar. My most recent batch was made with a golden rum (80-proof) from St. Vincent. The hot steam rises through the still with each floor or plate acting to distil the wash with heavier compounds unable to rise to the next floor so falling while lighter compounds vaporise and ascend the still. For rum production ideally molasses should have at least 52% sugar content but sadly for the distillers there is no specification for molasses as this is a waste product of sugar processing. Blending is the final process available to the distiller to alter a rum's character. Charcoal filtration can also remove the colour imparted by age so a three year old rum may be crystal clear when bottled. The molasses-cane juice mixture is then fermented and distilled. The pH of the molasses will also affect fermentation and ideally will be in a range between 4.4 to 4.6 and this may be adjusted but the addition of the acidic residue (lees) left in the still after an earlier distillation. Just as with vodka, it is very easy to make your own infused rum. The cut cane is promptly transported to the mill where it is crushed in a machine. Like rhum agricole, cachaça is location-dependent and can only be made … So with rum what you see is not necessarily what you get. Almost any aged rum can be mixed into drinks and many can stand on their own and enjoyed straight. Some say that every year of 'tropical ageing', where the oak's pores are wide open so allowing the rum to soak deep into the wood, is equivalent to three years in a cold warehouse were the pores will be more closed. This taste profile is a result of either the production of congeners (organic compounds produced during production) or the addition of caramel. Dark rum: Aged longer than most white rums, dark rums have a stronger, more noticeable flavor due to the barrel aging process. I wanted to make some rum so that I could make my own Captain Morgans Spiced Rum you will need 1 x 25L fermentation vessel a long spoon, you can get these from homebrew shops yeast nutrient, you can substitute tomato puree for this if you have trouble getting hold of yeast nutrient. The cane is left standing and is only singed by the fire due to its high water content. Perforated copper trays or 'plates' sit horizontally in each, like the floors in an skyscraper. Some of these heavier congeners are oily and are referred to as fusel oils. The type of wood used is often the determining factor in the color of rum produced in the end. The level of these (esters, aldyhydes and lower alcohols) is dependent on the length of the fermentation and the purity to which it was distilled. The process of extracting sugar from cane juice produces a by-product called molasses and this is what most rum is made from. For example the first retort may contain low wines mixed with fermented wash, dunder and even some high wines. Thus, you might start with ten casks of rum from a particular batch and ten years later be left with only five casks. They are the most popular rums to use for cocktails like the Cuba Libre and among the most affordable rums on the market. White rum is made from byproducts of sugarcane, including molasses and juice. The crushing extracts the sugar cane juice from the fibrous pulp. At the sugar mill, the cane is chopped and crushed to extract the juice which is boiled to reduce the water content and leave a syrup known as 'wet sugar', comprising approximately 30% sugar. Multiple-column stills can produce both heavy and light rums depending on where the spirit is removed from the still. Gold rums are often aged in oak casks, which also contribute to their dark, smooth characteristics. The vast majority of rum you see on store shelves, and in the wells of bars, is made from the fermentation and distillation of molasses—the same molasses used in … Rum is produced throughout the world and each region and country have different laws and traditions that are used in its production. Flavoring rum by adding spices and aromatics during distillation became popular in the latter part of the 20th century. Light, gold, dark, spiced, and flavored rums are among the most popular. Casks may be scraped clean to remove any previous charring, and/or re-charred before being filled with rum: the quality of these casks, what they previously held, how many times they are refilled and their treatment dramatically affects the character they impart to the rum stored within them. Like most rums, it can be mixed into almost any cocktail you can think of. As in the first retort, the vapour causes the liquid to boil and the alcohol strength of the vapour is boosted a second time. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. But anything is excess is bad. Put simply steam is introduced at the bottom of the still and the wash mid way up. Modern column still technology allows light and extra-light rums to be produced efficiently and cheaply. The sweetness can vary widely and the flavor is also balanced with the smoothness, richness, smokiness, and drinkability. The resulting rum is equally as dark, rich, and thick. There are also origin-specific styles like cachaça and rhum agricole available. It's worth remembering that distillation can only separate and remove flavours while fermentation generates flavour in the first place. Light-bodied rum is sometimes referred to as white or silver rum. That is why you may see a dark Caribbean rum aged for just three to five years while a North American rum of similar color and oaky flavor may be aged for around 10 years. Fermentation can be a quick as 24 hours or as long as a fortnight. Losses in volume to due evaporation are also more exaggerated in hotter climates (around 6% per year as opposed to 3% in Scotland) and high humidity can mean an almost equal loss between alcohol and water, meaning that although the volume is lost the strength remains fairly constant. First produced in the 1600s in the Caribbean, rum can be made from sugar cane juice or from molasses, a rich, dark by-product of sugar production that provides an earthy flavour note. There are a number of styles of rum produced. These are tied in elaborate shapes to represent a watchman, which the cutters believe will ward off the 'duppies' or mischievous spirits. Rum is an alcoholic spirit made from sugar cane. Diplomatico Reserva. Rum is made from sugar cane juice or its by-product called molasses. They are often quite rich and surprisingly smooth. Instead, it's often thought of as a unique distilled spirit that is its own category. The Singularity of Cuban Rum. More modern three and four column stills allow for more efficient rectification. This process usually includes the fermentation of the juices of the sugarcane plant, as well as of molasses and other by-products of sugar production. The level of impurities in light rum is less than a third of those found in heavy rums. The origins of a rum and its 'terroir', will affect its style, not only due to local production method traditions, but also the micro-climate, origin of the sugar cane juice / molasses and location and style of ageing warehouses. It is the most common … The purity of the juice imparts a special flavor to this style of rum. Pot stills are used in many of the traditional rums, though most now use continuous column stills. In the US, rum is defined as a spirit distilled from the fermented juice of sugar cane, sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses or other sugar cane byproducts at less than 95% abv and bottled at at least 40% alcohol by volume. Making rum from scratch using molasses and sugar. The sugar found on your supermarket shelf, whether white or brown was produced from sugar cane juice and regardless of its end colour was originally brown - white sugar is the result of a further industrial process. It soon became popular in New England and was produced there as well. Another rum made directly from sugar cane juice, cachaça gained some popularity in the U.S. following the 2016 Olympics. Thanks to Don Facundo Bacardi's lead it is common to use charcoal filtration during the production of light rums. Heavy rums traditionally come from former French and English colonies, including Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Barbados, Guyana and the Virgin Islands. All editorial and photography on is copyright protected, Please confirm you are over 21 years old and enter your email, Reviews, Ratings & Our Rules of Engagement. Some popular brands include: Colleen Graham is a cocktail expert, professional bartender, and cookbook author with over 10 years of experience in the food-writing world. The lightest of these, the 'low wines' (those with a low boiling point) will be given off first and many of these most volatile compounds are harmful. White rums generally have a light sweetness and are an agreeable, easy-to-drink choice. There are many fascinating brands available to explore and they run the gamut of price and quality. Ethanol alcohol and other desirable compounds are less volatile (slightly heavier) and so follow the low wines. The two columns are linked, the second further purifying the vapours from the first while at the same time heating the wash that will charge the first (analyzer) colum. The way the distiller can influence the type of distillate produced varies according to which of these two types of still are used. This process is repeated a couple of times and the sugar produced sold on the world market. Overproof or high-proof rum is often only used as a float in cocktails. Distilleries producing light and heavy rums often blend the two to produce a rum having characteristics of both. Put simply the yeast eats sugar and in doing so produces alcohol, heat and carbon dioxide. Rum is one of the major liquors in the world, with a history steeped in the myths of piracy, the Caribbean, and slavery. By the mid-1700s, rum was being made throughout the Caribbean and South America. This caramelises natural sugars on the wood's surface increasing the vanillins. Column stills are also known as 'continuous stills' because, as their name suggests, they can be run continuously without the need to stop and start between batches as in pot stills. This syrup is clarified and mixed with sugar crystals, which provide a core for the dissolved sugar in the syrup to crystallise on. These are undesirable compounds, partly due to being tainted as these first vapours effectively clean the still from the previous distillation. Get our free book when you sign up for our newsletter. You can also find mango, strawberry, and many other flavors to choose from. The third batch of sugar produced by this process is known as Low-grade sugar and this is used to mix with the next batch of syrup to start the process again. Some stills are very simple, while others have devices which allow the distiller more control. Rhum agricole must be produced in the French territories, most commonly the island of Martinique, and it is governed by an AOC (appellation d’origine controlle), similar to Cognac. Plantation If you are already drunk, don't try to play with fire in your drinks. Rum is made throughout the world and, while the Caribbean is best known for its rum, there are some fantastic brands produced elsewhere. Rums may be 95% column still with just 5% or even less pot still to add character and flavour. Rum is produced from Genus Saccharum officinarun, the giant grass that’s better known as sugar cane. This process gives light rums their clean, light flavor. The use of sugar cane distinguishes rum from all other liquors. Also, never use overproof liquors of any kind in cooking or near an open flame because they are highly flammable. This filters harsh and undesirable components from the rum and different types of charcoal can be used to remove different substances and so "smooth" the rum. Depending where you are, the pulp waste can later be burned to generate power or to heat the still. Many rum producing nations have precious few rules governing age statements and additives, and I am not being controversial by saying that some producers take advantage of the lack of regulations or governing bodies. They also allow the production of lighter, cleaner rums. In the case of the best producers and regulated markets, these age statements (rightly) represent the age of the youngest rum in the blend.

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