Abdel-Haleem AA, 2014. Ruthenica, 21(1):81-87. Simpson RD; Stanisic J, 1986. II. Spencer GJ, 1961. The slugs may then crawl over the edge of some object and become suspended by a thick thread of mucus. Graells MP, 1846. 136 pp. Balashov IA; Son MO; Coadã V; Welter-Schultes F, 2013. Beckmann KH, 2007. Jaeckel S, 1954. Chiribotan. Lutz L, 1950. [English title not available]. Bull. As with other terrestrial gastropod species, once established in an area, eradication is most unlikely. 2003-21.]. Fauna, 62(4):106-111. 2), 7(21):391-448. White WH, 1918. Slugs and snails in New York greenhouses. Alonso R, 1975. PLoS ONE, 9(5):e94969. Environmental orientation by terrestrial Mollusca with particular reference to homing behaviour. [English title not available]. [Fauna Graeciae 8.]. Štamol V, 2010. In: Folia Malacologica, 15 (2) 83-93. Tiscia, Szeged, 15:93-102. There have been no quantitative studies that determine the relative contributions of L. maximus to plant losses occurring in gardens due to slugs. Likharev IM; Wiktor A, 1980. GRAHAM R; TORREY JP; MIZELLE JD; MICHAEL Viola M, 1937. The Nautilus, 66:54-59. Grewal PS; Grewal SK; Tan L; Adams BJ, 2003. Farmers' Bulletin, USDA Bureau of Entomology, 950:3-8. Limax maximus in San Francisco gardens. Études sur la faune du sol, Paris, France: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. A contribution towards a check-list of the non-marine molluscan fauna of South Africa. Cyanea superba (Haha) 5-year review summary and evaluation. Smith B J, 1992. Leiden, Netherlands: Sysoev A; Schileyko A, 2009. Jaeckel S, 1954. On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Modern international biosecurity regulations and surveillance have greatly reduced the pathways by which L. maximus formerly was commonly transported across borders. While mollusc damage is characteristic to the expert, it resembles that caused by various insects with which it is often confused. The species now known as Limax maximus was described by Lister (1678), Linnaeus (1745, 1746), Dézallier d'Argenville (1757) and others in published works rejected for the purposes of zoological nomenclature (i.e. Revue Biologique du Nord de la France. Helena, Montana, USA: Montana Natural Heritage Program, 30 pp. Monograph 3, Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia, 2(2):521-1113. Texas Invasive Species Institute, 2004. [English title not available]. Comparative Parasitology, 75(2):308-314. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1654/4357.1. List of Molluscs. Other. Sterkiana, 67-68:1-4. The slugs of Ireland. Histoire naturelle des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la France contenant des études générales sur leur anatomie et leur physiologie et la description particulière des genres, des esp. In: Ezhegodnik Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk (Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg), 3 52-57. 38: 253 pp. Schriften zur Malakozoologie, 25:22-38. The land snail fauna in strongly man-influenced and man-made habitats in Goteborg (south west Sweden) with some remarks to the anthropochorous fauna elements: 1. Control might involve physically removing slugs and their eggs, but would generally rely on chemical treatments (principally baits containing molluscicides). 12 pp. Birds have them, bees have them, even regular old fleas have them, but in the animal kingdom, no penis is exactly like the next. In: Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 30 54-95. Since the 80s, Leopard Geckos have been one of the favorite pets in the North America. Linnæus C, 1745. Melvill JC, Ponsonby JH, 1898. Furthermore, species such as L. maximus are important consumers of macrofungi and probably influence decomposition and nutrient cycling through dispersal of fungal spores and hyphae. (Limaces des îles Madere et Teneriffe.) Bogota, Colombia: Instituto Colombian Aogropecuario I.C.A, 402 pp. Z. Morph. In: Proceedings of the First European Malacological Congress., UK: Conchological Society of Great Britain and the Malacological Society of London, 95-109. Baker HB, 1930. Towards a new standard in slug species descriptions: the case of Limax sarnensis Heim & Nitz n. sp. The name Leopard Slug is derived from the slug's dark spots on its light brown body. Experience with other gastropod pest species clearly demonstrates that it is feasible to eradicate incipient infestations, but to date there have been no successful attempts to eradicate long-established populations of invasive gastropod species.Control. Viii + 116 pp. Dolphins don’t just use their penises for baby-making, either. In: Natural enemies of terrestrial molluscs [ed. In: Mitteilungen der deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 49 5-11. Rähle W, 1992. Find the perfect leopard slugs stock photo. 4 (1, Spécial, Zoologie), 41-46. List of terrestrial and aquatic molluscs collected by M. Th. Lessona M; Pollonera C, 1882. Collection de mémoires et documents publiés par ordre de S.A.S. The studies in Hawaiian forests suggest that persistence of several rare and endangered plant species may be compromised by herbivory by L. maximus and several other adventive slugs. Share your thoughts, experiences and the tales behind the art. Nonetheless, there are no quantitative data available to implicate L. maximus as a significant pest in these cropping situations. Branson BA, 1962. Survey of trematodes from terrestrial gastropods and small mammals in Southeastern Nebraska, U.S.A. (2003a) demonstrated the inability of P. hermaphrodita to effect mortality in L. maximus and several other slug species. 65 (1), 25-40. Grimm FW, 1958. [English title not available]. The widespread slug Limax maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): species boundaries and redescription. (2009) concluded without definitive evidence that L. maximus was probably predominantly carnivorous. Likharev IM, Rammel'meier ES, 1952. Folia Malacologica, 15(2):83-93. Faune de France, 21:1-477. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Malacological Congress, Budapest, 1983. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne du Nord de la France, 1:150-328. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: Natal Museum, v + 336 pp. Fauna of New Zealand, No. (Pulmonados desnudos de las Baleares (Mollusca, Gastropoda).) Kennard AS; Woodward BB, 1926. (Étude anatomique comparative des espèces Limax cinereoniger Wolf 1803 et Limax maximus Linné 1758 et description de deux espèces nouvelles du genre Lehmania Heinemann [sic].) Studies in Biodiversity and Systematics of Terrestrial Organisms from the National Museum of Wales:204 pp. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 30:1-92. Illustrated catalogue of the recent terrestrial molluscs of Russia and adjacent regions. In isolated populations, eradication is theoretically possible by repeated molluscicide application over several years (reproductive seasons). (Zur Systematik und Faunistik der Mollusken der nördlichen Balkanhalbinsel). B. Baillière. Land snails of E. Huyck Preserve, New York. Pilsbry HH, 1948. Levantiana, 39:457-465. It's found under the mantle. Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 30(2):745-765. > 0°C, dry winters), Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. Attractants include beer, milk, cat food, or milled grains. Irikov A, Eröss Z, 2008. By shutting down half of their penis at a time, male echidnas fit perfectly with the female’s two-branched reproductive tract. Göteborgs Kongliga Vetenskaps och Vitterhetssamhälles Handlingar (Ny Tidsföljd), 10:26-93. Cultural control and sanitary measures Nonetheless, the species is occasionally intercepted by port quarantine personnel (e.g. Berlin, German Federal Republic: Springer-Verlag, x + 445pp. Graeff-Teixera C, Thiengo S C, Thome J W, Medeiros A B, Camillo-Coura L, Agostini A A, 1993. Córdoba Vargas CA; Sicard TL, 2009. Sterkiana, 45:34-35. (Moluscos terrestres y de agua dulce de la Patagonia). The definitive proof of culpability is observation of L. maximus actually feeding on the plants. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 243-255. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 77:684-688. [English title not available]. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: a review. Chiribotan, 39(2):101-105. Wurzinger KH, 1975. The Biology of Copulation in Limacidse. Birds are also commonly infected by helminth parasites requiring gastropods as intermediate hosts. Like many organisms with intriguing phalluses, flatworms that engage in penis fights are hermaphrodites—just one example that showcases how a sex binary system fails to account for the range, fluidity and diversity of many organisms. Digestive tract: Jaw about 3.5 mm wide, with a prominent medial projection and transversely scored with fine striae. Wiktor A, 1996. Fauna and zoogeography of Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial mollisks (Mollusca) in Bulgaria. Espècies nouvelle sou peu connues.) (Über die Nahrung von Limax (Heynemannia) maximus L.) Anzeiger für Schädlingskde, 25:41-43. On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil. West American notes. 181-189. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti Venezia, Memorie Classe di Scienze Matematiche e Naturali, 33(2):1-74. In: Malakologische Abhandlungen, 18 (26) 271-276. [English title not available]. by Boersma, P. D. \Reichard, S. H. \Buren, A. N. van]. Proceedings of a Workshop held at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, 30 November-3 December 1987 [ed. There are considerable biological imperatives for this, not least the demonstrated remarkably difficult delivery of pesticides to the target gastropod tissues when applied as spray and dust formulations. American Journal of Conchology, 3(2):155-181. Spatial distribution. The conjugal behavior of the introduced European Giant garden slug, Limax maximus L., as observed on South Bass Island, Lake Erie. Recovery Strategy for Dromedary Jumping-slug (Hemphillia dromedarius) in Canada [Proposed]. Paris, France: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, 385-398. A list of the land Mollusca of Claiborne Co., Tennessee, with description of a new subspecies of Triodopsis. Continue In North America the species occurs varyingly at localities far removed from human population centres and often in little-modified habitat (e.g. Natur und Heimat, 69(3):73-94. Huezo MA, Lainez MA, 1986. Subsequent studies demonstrated that in response to long days, both the cerebral ganglion and haemolymph contain a male gonadotropic factor that stimulates proliferation of spermatogonia in recipient slugs maintained in inhibitory short days (Melrose et al., 1983). Boffi AV, 1979. Turkish land snails., Solingen, Germany: Verlag Natur & Wissenschaft. Proceedings of the Malacological Sciety of London, 29:181-189. [English title not available]. Hipkin CR; Facey PD, 2009. Karlin EJ; Naegele JA, 1960. maximus has frequently been mistaken for L. cinereoniger, but is distinguished externally from that species by its shorter, less prominent keel; smaller tubercles on the body; uniformly pale sole; its banding or maculation; absence of a pale stripe running from keel to posterior margin of mantle; and uniformly vinous brown tentacles. Wayne (2001) concluded that the male gonadotropic factor probably originates in the cerebral ganglion (which contains many secretory neurons) and is secreted into the haemolymph from which it diffuses throughout the circulatory system to reach its target site(s) in the reproductive system. 30 pp. Castillejo J; Rodríguez T, 1990. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles, tant des espèces que l'on trouve aujourd'hui vivantes, que des dépouilles fossiles de celles qui n'existent plus; classés d'après les caractères essentiels que présentent ces animaux et leurs coquilles ([English title not available]). Alzona C, 1971. Contribution to the study of the fauna of certain forest communities in Croatia. In: Sterkiana, 39 11-15. Large, with a saddle-like mantle shield that overs only the anterior part of the body; containing a vestigial shell as an oval plate. [English title not available]. Checklist of New Jersey land snails. (Zoogeographische Analyse der Landschnecken des alpinen Gebietes Sloweniens (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).) Intra- and interspecific agnostic behaviour among terrestrial slugs (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora). Paris, France: Baillière. (Liste des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles recueillis par M. Th. (Moluscos terrestres y dulceacuícolas de la Cordillera de la Costa chilena.) However, earlier collected specimens are represented in museum collections, First published record evidently Hubricht (1970). Damage is simply holes rasped in plant tissues. [MalaCo, 3.]. Occasionally, damage to plants is of sufficient intensity to warrant adoption of controls, principally the application of molluscicidal baits.L. Morelet A, 1860. Limax maximus, Leopard slug. 8 pp. Natural Areas Journal, 30(3):322-327. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3375/043.030.0307. Many of the species are poorly known (Nitz et al., 2009) and that there is often considerable intraspecific variation in body pigmentation has led to the introduction of numerous species-group names and subsequent extensive synonymies. Nonetheless, to date, there are no documented cases of L. maximus functioning as an ecosystem engineer, where the species effects ecosystem-level changes. Non-marine Mollusca in Jersey: a revised list. Even the association of L. maximus with damaged plants is not definitive evidence that the species is solely or even partially responsible. First lateral tooth usually tricuspid, with prominent mesocone flanked by small endocone and ectocone. http://www.gbif.org/species. Limnaea auricularia in America. Insects of the season 1960 in the interior of British Columbia. However, within both its native and adventive range L. maximus is now also widely associated with modified (anthropogenic) ecosystems, especially those with ample ground cover. Nachrichtenblatt der Ersten vorarlberger Malakologischen Gesellschaft, 5:57-60. Miens HK, 1982. Folia Malacologica, 15(2):49-58. The ‘catch’ of slugs can be improved in some cases by placing some molluscicide baits under the trap. Dvorák, 2005; Weigand, 2014). Blue whale penises range between eight and ten feet, ... That is certainly the case for the leopard slug, which is so well-endowed that it has to go to extreme measures to reproduce. It grows to 20 cm long and has distinctive dark spots on a lighter brown body, giving it its name. Invasive temperate species are a threat to tropical island biodiversity. Diversity and durability: responses of the Madeiran and Porto-Santan snail faunas to natural and human-induced environmental change. Barnacles have the biggest penis-to-body size ratio, with genitalia nearly eight-times their total body length. In: Annales Zoologici, 36 (24) 465-489. Slugs (Mollusca) (Testacellidae, Arionidae, Limacidae).]. (Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles du Portugal. Hendricks P, 2009. Hylton Scott MI, 1963. Catalog and bibliography of the nonindigenous nonmarine snails and slugs of the Hawaiian Islands. Barger MA; Hnida JA, 2008. [English title not available]. Natural History and a field guide. Theobald FV, 1895. L. maximus is known to be included in the diet of the European hedgehog (Allen, 2004). \Harvey, T.]. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7(3):349-368. Parasitism of molluscs by nematodes: types of associations and evolutionary trends. Blue whales are the largest creature to ever roam the earth, and they certainly have the phallus to match. 157-161. Patrimoines naturels, 52:1-350. Bank RA; Bouchet P; Falkner G; Gittenberger; E; Hausdorf B; Proschwitz Tvon; Ripken TEJ, 2001. Dedov I, 1998. Moquin-Tandon A, 1855. Alien species in Norway - with the Norwegian Black List 2012 [ed. Courtship, mating, and egglaying behavior in the Limacidae (Mollusca). The calcitic shell is situated beneath the hinder part of the shield, and is perceptible through the s… Custer, South Dakota, USA: USDA Forest Service. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 28:53-73. In: Field problems of beans in Latin America, 136 pp. (Ueber einige Nacktschnecken von Montenegro und Corsica). [English title not available]. Las babosas de la familia Limacidae Rafinesque, 1815 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, terrestrial nuda) de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. A list of Caithness land and freshwater Mollusca. South A, 1992. (Fauna malacologica terrestre de la Depresion de Granda (España). A large number of natural enemies of terrestrial gastropods are known, with a voluminous, albeit widely dispersed and often specialized, literature. Agudo-Padrón AI, 2011. Kozlowski J, 2012. In: Report to the Wisconsin Council on Invasive Species, Species Assessment Group, 8 pp. Reinink K, 1979. Castillejo J; Manga-Gonzalez MY, 1986. Terrestrial slugs. Branson BA; Batch DL, 1971. Animal Conservation, 10(1):22-29. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117969987/abstract. Simroth H, 1885. The occurrence of Angiostrongylus vasorum in terrestrial slugs from forests and parks in the Copenhagen area, Denmark. Bank RA; Bouchet P; Falkner G; Gittenberger; E; Hausdorf B; Proschwitz Tvon; Ripken TEJ, 2002. [English title not available]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 525-557. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=209. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 61:1-144. Passive transport of L. maximus within countries is common, due to the species’ association with soil; potted plants; stored vegetables and other produce; wooden packaging materials (boxes, crates, pellets) (especially those that have been in contact with soil); and soiled agricultural and military machinery. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 225:321-324. The terrestrial slugs of northeastern North America. GBIF, 2015. Forcart L, 1965. [English title not available]. Aedo, Leadley & Muñoz Garm. Land snails of the Great Smoky Moutains (Eastern region)., USA: Appalachian Highlands Science Learning Center. http://www.projectnoah.org/organisms. (Los limacos del Pais Vasco.) Prostatic gland fused to female oviduct proximally, free anteriorly. These parasites can be economically important in birds farmed or harvested from the wild for eggs, feathers and/or meat, and game birds farmed to augment wild populations. Proschwitz Tvon, 1988. Land Mollusca of North America (North of Mexico), Monograph 3. (Frassschäden an Gewächshauspflanzen durch Schnecken.) Natural infection of land-snails by protostrongylids on a pasture grazed by sheep in the Rabat area of Morocco. 125-133. (Insectos y otras plagas del frijol en America Latina.) Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 32:77-85, 97-107. Nazemnye mollyuski fauny SSSR. Coram. Alsinidendron obovatum (no common name) 5-year review summary and evaluation. Central nervous system: Located in anterior of body cavity, immediately behind buccal mass. Holyoak DT, 1983. Bank RA; Bouchet P; Falkner G; Gittenberger; E; Hausdorf B; Proschwitz Tvon; Ripken TEJ, 2002. The Veliger, 23(2):171-176. Lowe RT, 1855. [English title not available]. Davis DS, 1992. [English title not available]. Guernsey M, 1912. [English title not available]. 5 [ed. (Dano de la babosa del frijol y su control en El Salvador). An annotated list of the non-marine mollusca of Britain and Ireland. Wiktor A, 1973. Post-dispersal seed predation of balsam fir in Terra Nova National Park, Newfoundland, Canada. Étude sur les mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la principauté de Monaco et du département des Alpes-Maritimes ([English title not available]). Waldén HW, 1965. 14 days at 18-20°C: Prior, 1983). Contract 43-67TO-8-1085. Diverse gastropod hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, globally and with a focus on the Hawaiian Islands. 2010 status report for the Makua and Oahu implementation plans. Fully extended the leopard slug may be up to 8" long (Photo: Flicker Sharing, NorthDevonFarmer) The land snails of New York State preliminary report. L. maximus is hermaphroditic, with individuals producing both male and female gametes. In: Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and draft regional strategy [ed. Monograph of the land and freshwater Mollusca of the British Isles. Journal of Conchology, 25(6):242-245. En garde! circadian rhythm), light intensity, change in light intensity and substrate temperature, shelter temperature, length of night, time of sunset, and age and degree of hydration of the individuals. Contrary to the common predation of birds on slugs and snails (Wild and Lawson 1937; South, 1992; Allen, 2004), Boycott (1934) considered that most bird species reject larger slugs such as L. maximus. Olfactory basis of homing behaviour in the giant garden slug, Limax maximus. Impensis Cave Pulleyn ad insigne Rosae in Coemeterio Divi Pauli. Malakologische Abhandlungen, 3(7):71-79. Land snail survey of the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming, summary report 1991-2001. The implications are that these effects may lead to ecosystem-level changes, but definitive evidence for this is presently lacking. 1-25 + 1-239, 1-17 pp. Bank RA; Bouchet P; Falkner G; Gittenberger; E; Hausdorf B; Proschwitz Tvon; Ripken TEJ, 2002. Among these parasites are Mullerius capillaris in sheep, goats, and deer; Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus davtiani, P. hobmaieri, P. rufescens and P. skrjabini in sheep and goats; Elaphostrongylus cervi and Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in deer; and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi in reindeer. Duprey E, 1876. The landsnails of Madeira. Simone LRL, 2006. Both conspecifics and other species are attacked, in some cases fatally. Under the relatively uniform conditions of agricultural fields, the level of control of pest gastropods with a single baiting operation is rarely above 70%, and typically 10–60% (e.g. Annotated checklist of land gastropods of Bronx County, New York. On the land and freshwater Mollusca of Algiers and Bougia. Texas Invasive Species Institute database. Heller J, 2009. ANSP 72498 A3124c, collected JG Malone 1898), First published record evidently Dundee (1974). In: Biodiversity Journal, 2 (2) 53-58. Postepy w Ochronie Roslin, 52(4):1129-1135. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Synopsis of the land mollusca of Chile with remarks on distribution. Internally L. maximus is distinguished by its larger shell; larger jaw; the general weakness of the ectocones and endocones on the radular teeth; and shorter phallus (relative to body length) in the reproductive system. Size Range 20 cm; This is the largest of the introduced slugs found in Sydney. The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a main battle tank designed and produced by Porsche in West Germany that first entered service in 1965. [English title not available]. [English title not available]. Aggressiveness is more common during adverse weather conditions when the availability of shelter and food is limiting. SŠteffek J, 1978. Hawaii, USA: U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii and Pacific Cooperative Park Studies Unit, 711 pp. [Giornale di Malacologia 2.]. Alien species in Norway - with the Norwegian Black List 2012. Notice sur l'histoire naturelle des Açores suivie d'une description des mollusques terrestres de cet archipel ([English title not available]). Land and freshwater Mollusca of Norway. For example, because of aggression towards slugs of genus Arion, Winter et al. Halbwachs H; Bässler C, 2015. Graeff-Teixeira A; Camillo-Coura L; Lenzi HL, 1991. 212 pp. Only when environmental conditions are highly favourable and daytime resting sites plentiful, does it occur in high local densities. Memoranda Soc. Recovery plan for Oregon Forestsnail (Allogona townsendiana) in British Columbia. Impact on productivity and epidemiology of gastrointestinal and lungworm parasites in sheep in Morocco. [English title not available]. Angewandte Botanik,Zeitschrift der Vereinigung für angewandte Botanik, 22(2):157-167. ... Spanish slug eggs nest hatchery hatch pest Arion vulgaris Limax maximus biggest great grey leopard slug egg-laying white. [Collection de mémoires et documents publiés par ordre de S.A.S. Impact of alien slugs on native plant seedlings in a diverse mesic forest, O'ahu, Hawai'i, and a study of slug food plant preferences., USA: University of Hawaii, 87 pp. Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing Co. Inc. Bába K, 1980. Grossu AV, 1983. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Report on the invertebrates of Massachusetts, second edition. In: The first annual meeting of Task-Force-Limax, Bünder Naturmuseum, Chur, Switzerland, 8-10 September, 2006: presentation, outcomes and abstracts [ed. Hubenov Z, 2007. Bank RA; Bouchet P; Falkner G; Gittenberger; E; Hausdorf B; Proschwitz Tvon; Ripken TEJ, 2002. (Skandinaviska land-sniglar, limacina, afbildade efter lefvande exemplar och beskrivna.) L. maximus generally has low density (~ 1/m2) in forest systems, both in the native and introduced ranges, but can contribute significantly to gastropod biomass (e.g. Oesophagus quickly expanding to large crop, extending to about 0.6 of body cavity. Non-native plant invasion of boreal forest gaps: implications for stand regeneration in a protected area shaped by hyperabundant herbivores. (Revision der Gattung Limax aus Rumänien, nebst Beschreibung einiger neuer Arten). Branson BA, 1980. (Nacktschnecken (Arionidae, Milacidae, Agriolimacidae und Limacidae) von Madeira und Porto Santo (Mittelatlantische Inseln).) Limax conemenosi) in southern Europe where a number of poorly known species occur (Wiktor, 1983). L. maximus has been implicated in the transmission of parasite in a case of eosinophilic meningitis in Sydney, Australia (Senanayake et al., 2003) and infected L. maximus have been reported in the Hawaiian Islands (Kim et al., 2014). (Pulmonata - Lungenschnecken.) http://www.ni.is/poddur/. (Moluscos terrestres y de agua dulce de la Patagonia.) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 6(3):105-226. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, 51:185-195. Annals of the Natal Museum, 38:197-239. Springer, 141-198. 197.]. Hylton Scott MI, 1963. Within 3 weeks the other body bands have appeared and begin breaking up, and the mantle becomes increasingly spotted or mottled.Eggs. South A, 1965. Balashov IA, Son MO, Coadã V, Welter-Schultes F, 2013. There are three major classes of compounds presently used in control of terrestrial gastropod pests, namely metaldehyde, carbamates, and metal chelates (see discussion by Barker and Watts, 2002). L. maximus juveniles may sometimes be confused with Lehmannia species (Limacidae). It is aggressive towards conspecifics and other slug species when competition exists over vital resources such as shelter and food (Rollo and Wellington, 1977, 1979; Barker and McGhie, 1984). Hawaii, USA: Directorate of Public Works, Environmental Division, 334 pp. A guide to invasive and native fauna of California. Parasitology Today, 7(6):151-153. Barker GM, 1979. [English title not available]. Histopathological criteria for diagnosis of abdominall angiostrongyliasis. Gotthardt TA; Walton KM, 2011. In reference to habitat in New Zealand, Barker (1999) observed that the species occurs along forest margins, but does not penetrate far into undisturbed temperate evergreen rainforests. Insertis numerosis rariorum naturae observationibus. The abundance and damage potential of L. maximus and other gastropod pests in garden and agricultural situations is often closely linked to the amount of ground cover, as refuge for the pests, adjacent to the cultivated plants. (Rhyncosinapis cheiranthos (Vill.) Simone LRL, 2006. [English title not available]. The Nautilus, 4:67-68. In non-agricultural areas, L. maximus feeds on a variety of plants (e.g. Armitage J; McMillan NF, 1964. Biological control of Limax maximus and Helix aspersa by indigenous predators in a daisy field in central coastal California. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 11(2):291-299. Its use in agriculture there is at present constrained by the high cost. In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 86 (5) 846-849. 17 pp. An updated annotated checklist of the molluscs of the republic of Moldova. Morand S; Wilson MJ; Glen DM, 2004. Studies on the reactions of Limax maximus to directive stimuli. Ludwig A; Reise H; Hutchinson JMC, 2015. Shell: Thin, shiny white, oblong-oval, weakly convex plate, up to 14 X 6.7 mm; dorsal surface with distinct growth lines. Neither A. cantonensis nor A. costaricensis can complete its life cycle in human hosts. Chichester LF, Getz LL, 1969. le prince Albert 1er, prince souverain de Monaco.]. Checklist of the land snails and slugs of California. Icelandic land and freshwater Mollusca. Castillejo J; Garrido C, 1998. 182 pp. The greatest potential for plant damage by L. maximus in the agricultural sector is in protected cropping, such as in glasshouses and greenhouses, or where crops occur near other dense vegetation, as the high moisture conditions and availability of daylight resting sites are highly favourable to high densities and activity. Eradication Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 8(1-2):84-90. Bouchet P; Rocroi JP, 2005. Leonard AB, 1959. It is also very difficult to achieve 100% mortality because of differential susceptibility of individuals in populations and, in the case of chemical or manual controls, there are no barriers to rapid population resurgence from survivors, hatch from eggs, and recolonisation by immigration. Laguna Marine Laboratory at Laguna Beach, Orange County, California ; aortic stem.! Para El control E plagas ( [ English title not available ] ). ). Sweden. Hosts, but few reports specifically relate to L. maximus as a form of support., 26 ( 3 ) 397-408 Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a plant pest: Bronn 's Klassen und Ordnungen Thierreiches! Bottlenose dolphins frequently copulate for pleasure, and the mollucicidal ingredients toxic to L. maximus leads to changes vegetation. Oxford ), but was introduced to Australia in the woods of the Society! Wilson MJ ; Glen DM, 2004 ). ). ). ),. Consuming fungal mycelia and fruiting structures ( e.g Nolsø Â, 2014 ] Project checklist of land freshwater... 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